A 12-year-old Japanese girl developed infective endocarditis and central nervous system disease. The previously healthy girl showed altered consciousness and abnormal behaviors along with the classical signs of septic emboli. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from peripheral blood, but not, the pleocytotic cerebrospinal fluid. Diagnostic imaging studies revealed a vegetative structure in the morphologically normal heart, and multiple thromboembolisms in the brain and spleen. Low plasma activity of protein S (12%) and thrombophilic family history allowed the genetic study, demonstrating that she carried a heterozygous mutation of PROS1 (exon 13; 1689C > T, p.R474C). Surgical intervention of the thrombotic fibrous organization and subsequent anticoagulant therapy successfully managed the disease. There are no reports of infective endocarditis in childhood occurring as the first presentation of heritable thrombophilia. Protein S deficiency might be a risk factor for the development or exacerbation of infective endocarditis in children having no pre-existing heart disease.
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