Porphyrin-fullerene C60 multilayered films have been successfully fabricated on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate by step-by-step, self-assembling, and surface sol-gel processes. First, cysteamine was self-assembled on the ITO surface, and then a C60 layer was formed via N-H addition reaction. The layered C60 further underwent another N-H addition with 1,2-diaminoethane to enable formation of the subsequent C 60 layer, giving a double-layered C60 film. Meanwhile, the layered C60 was treated with 2-aminoethanol to implant hydroxy groups on the C60 layer, which was essential to promote the surface sol-gel reaction with titanium-(IV) butoxide for implanting the titanium oxide layer. Then tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin was superimposed on the titanium oxide layer by the subsequent surface sol-gel reaction. By repeating these surface sol-gel reactions, the porphyrin layer was further assembled on the outermost layer. Accordingly, the porphyrin and C60 multilayered films could be fabricated by the series of above-described step-by-step reactions. Absorption, fluorescence, quartz crystal microbalance, and photoelectrochemical investigations were carried out. Considerable photoinduced electron transfer between photoexcited porphyrin to C60 was verified, even in the presence of the titanium oxide linking layer. Appreciable photocurrent generation from the multilayered films was observed, and its mechanism is described.
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