Blue light (BL) is a fundamental cue for stomatal opening in both C 3 and C 4 plants. However, it is unknown whether crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants open their stomata in response to BL. We investigated stomatal BL responses in the obligate CAM plants Kalanchoe pinnata and Kalanchoe daigremontiana that characteristically open their stomata at night and close them for part of the day, as contrasted with C 3 and C 4 plants. Stomata opened in response to weak BL superimposed on background red light in both intact leaves and detached epidermal peels of K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana. BL-dependent stomatal opening was completely inhibited by tautomycin and vanadate, which repress type 1 protein phosphatase and plasma membrane H + -ATPase, respectively. The plasma membrane H + -ATPase activator fusicoccin induced stomatal opening in the dark. Both BL and fusicoccin induced phosphorylation of the guard cell plasma membrane H + -ATPase in K. pinnata. These results indicate that BL-dependent stomatal opening occurs in the obligate CAM plants K. pinnata and K. daigremontiana independently of photosynthetic CO 2 assimilation mode.
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