We compared the structural, biochemical, and physiological characteristics involved in photorespiration of intergeneric hybrids differing in genome constitution (DtDtR, DtDtRR, and DtRR) between the C3-C4 intermediate species Diplotaxis tenuifolia (DtDt) and the C3 species radish (Raphanus sativus; RR). The bundle sheath (BS) cells in D. tenuifolia included many centripetally located chloroplasts and mitochondria, but those of radish had only a few chloroplasts and mitochondria. In the hybrids, the numbers of chloroplasts and mitochondria, the ratio of centripetally located organdies to total organelles, and the mitochondrial size in the BS cells increased with an increase in the constitution ratio of the Dt:R genome. The P-protein of glycine decarboxylase (GDC) was confined to the BS mitochondria in D. tenuifolia, whereas in radish, it accumulated more densely in the mesophyll than in the BS mitochondria. In the hybrids, more intense accumulation of GDC in the BS relative to the mesophyll mitochondria occurred with an increase in the Dt:R ratio. These structural and biochemical features in the hybrids were reflected in the gas exchange characteristics of leaves, such as the CO2 compensation point. Our data indicate that the leaf structure, the intercellular pattern of GDC expression, and the gas exchange characteristics of C3-C4 intermediate photosynthesis are inherited in the hybrids depending on the constitution ratio of the parent genomes. Our findings also demonstrate that the apparent reduced photorespiration in C3-C4 intermediate plants is mainly due to the structural differentiation of mitochondria and chloroplasts in the BS cells combined with the BS-dominant expression of GDC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Plant Science