Objective: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is known to be caused by Th1 cell-dependent autoimmunity. Recently, we reported that TYK2 promoter variant serves as a putative virus-induced diabetes susceptibility gene associated with deteriorated interferon-dependent antiviral response. TYK2 is also related to HIES, that is, Th2 cell-dependent. Therefore, TYK2 promoter variant may be also associated with the pathogenesis of T1D, modulating Th1/Th2 balance. Research Design and Methods: We assessed the association between anti- GAD Ab, IgE levels, and TYK2 promoter variant among 313 T1D patients, 184 T2D patients, and 264 YH controls in the Japanese. Results: T1D patients had elevated IgE (median, 56.7. U/ml; p <. 0.0001) compared with T2D patients (22.5. U/ml) and controls (43.3. U/ml). Contrary to our expectations, there was no correlation between TYK2 promoter variant and IgE levels. We found that T1D could be subtyped as four groups based on anti-GAD Ab and IgE profile: Subtype 1, anti-GAD Ab positive and non-elevated IgE (47.0%); Subtype 2, anti-GAD Ab negative and non-elevated IgE (35.1%); Subtype 3, anti-GAD Ab positive and elevated IgE (10.9%); and Subtype 4, anti-GAD Ab negative and elevated IgE (7.0%). In Subtype 2, a significantly higher incidence was observed in T1D cases carrying the TYK2 promoter variant (OR, 2.60; 95%CI, 1.03-6.97; p = 0.032), and also showing a flu-like syndrome at diabetes onset (OR, 2.34; 95%CI, 1.27-4.35; p = 0.003). Interpretation: Anti-GAD Ab and IgE profiling helps classifying T1D into four groups that recognize variable pathogenic bases of T1D.
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