Purpose We determined whether intravesical recurrence is affected by inhibition of androgen signaling among men with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods We examined the intravesical recurrence rate among men treated with or without androgen suppression therapy by androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer or 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Results We studied 228 men, including 32 with and 196 without androgen suppression therapy. During a median followup of 3.6 and 3.0 years intravesical recurrence developed in 4 (12.5%) and 59 men (30.1%) with and without androgen suppression therapy, respectively. On multivariate analysis multiple tumors (HR 1.82, p = 0.027), a large tumor (HR 2.13, p = 0.043) and ever smoking (HR 2.45, p = 0.020) as well as the presence of androgen suppression therapy (HR 0.36, p = 0.024) were independent risk factors for intravesical recurrence. Notably, tumor progressed to muscle invasive bladder cancer in 6 men (3.1%) without androgen suppression therapy. No man with androgen suppression therapy progressed to muscle invasive bladder cancer. Conclusions Our study suggests the possibility of androgen suppression therapy as prophylaxis for intravesical recurrence of bladder cancer. Further explorations are warranted of the prophylactic effect of androgen suppression therapy on bladder cancer pathogenesis.
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