Surgical anatomy around the kidney remains controversial. We therefore examined the constitutions of renal fascia and retroperitoneal space around the kidney through the close observations of intraoperative views. The surface of the removed kidney was covered with a smooth membrane, which is the so-called renal fascia. However, such a smooth membrane could not be observed at the dissection site around the kidney during surgery. Only an intricate connective tissue could be observed. On the other hand, using an operative procedure such as dissection or pulling tissue in some direction, an intricate connective tissue changed to a membranous structure. These results suggest that the retroperitoneal area around the kidney would be filled with connective tissue including some fat, which is arranged in a chaotic manner without any specific alignment tridimentionally. As a result of operative procedures, such connective tissue would be grouped, which would be recognized as renal fascia.
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