Liposarcomas are the most common type of mesenchymal neoplasm in soft tissue sarcomas. Although they frequently develop at the lower limbs or retroperitoneum, cases arising from the mediastinum are rare. Furthermore, the incidence of the inflammatory subtype of well-differentiated liposarcoma is known to be low. We experienced a case of a middle mediastinal liposarcoma in a 68-year-old woman. The tumor, which was completely resected, was 92 mm in diameter. The tumor consisted of two different imaging components that showed different growth and which were diagnosed as the lipoma-like subtype and inflammatory subtype of well-differentiated liposarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a well-differentiated inflammatory liposarcoma arising from the middle mediastinum.
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