Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials have attracted considerable attentions as a new kind of emitters in organic light-emitting diodes. While it is requisite to minimize an energy difference between the lowest excited triplet state (T 1 ) and lowest excited singlet state (S 1 ), so-called ΔE ST , a deeper understanding of the emission mechanism is desirable to clarify the comprehensive molecular design. In this paper, we present that the TADF ability and efficiency of (rare-)metal free organic molecules are surely influenced by both the nonradiative decay of T 1 and spin-orbit coupling. By investigating a temperature dependent photoluminescence of carbazole benzonitrile derivatives in toluene solutions using a newly developed liquid nitrogen cryostat, we demonstrate the activation of TADF by solvent freezing for room temperature-TADF inactive molecules. Transient photoluminescence measurements of the frozen samples show a significant increase of a lifetime of T 1 , probing the suppression of nonradiative decay path of T 1 . A magnitude of the TADF activation by the solvent freezing is closely related to the degree of spin-orbit coupling of the molecules. The present results emphasize the importance of suppression of nonradiative decay of T 1 and an increase of spin-orbit coupling together with reducing ΔE ST to achieve a high TADF emission efficiency.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry