Five instances of take-over (a foundress taking over an abandoned nest of conspecifics including immatures) by a Japanese paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis were described. All nests which were taken over had eggs, larvae and pupae but no adult workers. In two of the five cases, the original nests of foundresses which took over other nests had eggs and larvae but neither pupae nor adult workers. The new foundresses killed few, if any, immatures laid by the former foundresses. The adaptive significance of the take-over from the viewpoints of foundresses and workers was discussed.
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