Historically, androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) was the only primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. After prostate cancer develops into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), there are a few life-prolonging drugs, including taxanes, such as docetaxel and cabazitaxel, as well as novel androgen receptor-targeting agents, such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, which have been proved in clinical trials. However, the prognosis of men with CRPC is still poor. The duration from initiation of ADT to CRPC has not improved in recent decades because no novel therapeutic options have emerged. However, recently, up-front docetaxel chemotherapy has been shown to prolong progression-free as well as overall survival in men with metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer. This offers a new way to expand the role of chemotherapy for hormone-naïve prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize the proof-of-concept as well as the current status of taxane chemotherapy for hormone-naïve prostate cancer, focusing on phase 3 clinical trials investigating oncological outcome, and discuss the future direction in this field.
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