Three species of the red algal genus Herposiphonia (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) found in Japan are described, and taxonomic features of the genus are discussed. Herposiphonia crassa Hollenberg is reported from Japan for the first time and is characterized by thick axes (200-350 μm in diameter) and determinate branches (100-200 μm in diameter), relatively short determinate laterals (400-1200 μm in length) with a large number of periaxial cells (15-19 per segment) and three (occasionally two or four) vigorously developed (1.8-2.5 mm in length by 50-75 μm in diameter basally) trichoblasts on each determinate lateral. Herposiphonia elongata Masuda et Kogame is also reported from Japan for the first time and is characterized by the conspicuous thickening growth of cystocarp-bearing branches and spermatangial branches with an elongated sterile tip. Some newly found features of Herposiphonia fissidentoides (Holmes) Okamura are presented: the rhizoid production from the central portion of parental periaxial cells in addition to the distal end, virtual absence of vegetative trichoblasts, production of procarpial trichoblasts and spermatangial branches on fertile determinate branches on short indeterminate laterals, cystocarps sometimes with a short spur, and extremely large tetrasporangia.
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