The medicinal plant Pinellia ternata Breit, which is a non-domesticated plant, is widely distributed in Japan. However, the crude drug made from the plant corm is not currently produced in Japan. We investigated the influences of air temperature on the growth of P. ternata collected from 2 regions, the Kyoto and Nagasaki prefectures, for both of summer and winter seasons. The temperature effects on the effective ingredient contents in the corms were also investigated. At Kyushu University, plants were grown for 15 weeks in phytotron glass rooms controlled at air temperatures of 20, 25, or 30°C. The corm yields and effective ingredient content in the winter cultivation were poorer than those in the summer, because the cumulative solar radiation during the winter cultivation period was almost half of that in the summer. In the Kyoto lines, the highest corm yield was obtained at 25°C in the summer cultivation, while the Nagasaki lines did not show significant differences with respect to yield among the three growth temperature conditions. The effective ingredient contents in the corm did not differ significantly among the three temperature conditions for both lines, although the amount of effective ingredient in the Kyoto lines were significantly higher than those of Nagasaki in summer cultivation.
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