Pancreatic diabetes is secondary diabetes followed by progressions of pancreatic exocrine diseases, such as chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasm and post-pancreatectomy. Because of destruction and reduction of the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functional compartments, patients with pancreatic diabetes frequently show malnutrition from maldigestion and malabsorption by insufficiencies in pancreatic digestive enzymes, and show unstable glycemic control and prolonged hypoglycemia by insufficiencies in synthesis and secretion of insulin and glucagon. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the incidence and development of pancreatic diabetes in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) depends on several risk factors, such as alcohol intake, the presence of pancreatic calcification and the long-term duration of CP. The clinical management of pancreatic diabetes is divided into two parts: one is the supplementation of pancreatic digestive enzymes and the other is the achievement of appropriate glycemic control. The appropriate and sufficient pancreatic exocrine replacement therapy is important for the maintenance of better nutrient conditions for patients with pancreatic diabetes. Furthermore, the intensive insulin therapy combined with short- or ultra-short-acting insulin and long-acting insulin glargine can be achieved for stable glycemic control and reduction of severe frequent hypoglycemia in patients with pancreatic diabetes. These current advanced management techniques against insufficiencies of pancreatic exocrine endocrine functions are beneficial for improving and maintaining the quality of life in patients with pancreatic diabetes.
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