This study aimed to compare the effect of disease status at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on post-transplant outcomes between acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Japanese nationwide registry data for 6901 patients with AML and 2469 patients with ALL were analyzed. In this study, 2850 (41%), 937 (14%), 62 (1%), and 3052 (44%) AML patients and 1751 (71%), 265 (11%), 23 (1%), and 430 (17%) ALL patients underwent transplantation in first complete remission (CR1), second CR (CR2), third or subsequent CR (CR3 +), and non-CR, respectively. The probabilities of overall survival at 5 years for patients transplanted in CR1, CR2, CR3 + , and non-CR were 58%, 61%, 41%, and 26% for AML patients and 67%, 45%, 20%, and 21% for ALL patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the risks of relapse and overall mortality were similar for AML patients transplanted in CR1 and CR2 (P = 0.672 and P = 0.703), whereas they were higher for ALL patients transplanted in CR2 than for those transplanted in CR1 (P < 0.001 for both). The risks of relapse and overall mortality for those transplanted in CR3 + and non-CR increased in a stepwise manner for both diseases, with the relevance being stronger for ALL than for AML patients. These results suggest a significant difference in the effect of disease status at HCT on post-transplant outcomes in AML and ALL. Further investigation to incorporate measurable residual disease data is warranted.
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