Urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12), a urate transporter gene, is a causative gene for renal hypouricemia type 1. Among several reported nonsynonymous URAT1 variants, R90H (rs121907896) and W258X (rs121907892) are frequent causative mutations for renal hypouricemia. However, no case-control study has evaluated the relationship between gout and these two variants. Additionally, the effect size of these two variants on serum uric acid (SUA) levels remains to be clarified. Here, 1,993 primary gout patients and 4,902 health examination participants (3,305 males and 1,597 females) were genotyped with R90H and W258X. These URAT1 variants were not observed in any gout cases, while 174 subjects had the URAT1 variant in 2,499 health examination participants, respectively (P=8.3×10-46). Moreover, in 4,902 health examination participants, the URAT1 nonfunctional variants significantly reduce the risk of hyperuricemia (P=6.7×10-19; risk ratio=0.036 in males). Males, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants of URAT1, show a marked decrease of 2.19 or 5.42 mg/dl SUA, respectively. Similarly, females, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants, also evidence a decrease of 1.08 or 3.89 mg/dl SUA, respectively. We show that URAT1 nonfunctional variants are protective genetic factors for gout/hyperuricemia, and also demonstrated the sex-dependent effect size of these URAT1 variants on SUA (P for interaction=1.5×10-12).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes