Background: Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the episodic weakness of skeletal muscles and hypokalemia. More than half patients with HypoPP carry mutations in CACNA1S, encoding alpha-1 subunit of calcium channel. Few reports have documented the non-neuromuscular phenotypes of HypoPP. Methods: The proband is a Japanese woman who developed HypoPP at 6 years of age. An excessive insulin secretion with the oral glucose tolerance test rationalized that she had experienced frequent attacks of paralysis on high-carbohydrate diets. Results: Voglibose and acetazolamide effectively controlled her paralytic episodes. Her 8-year-old son and 2-year-old daughter started showing the paralytic symptoms from 4 and 2 years of age, respectively. Laboratory tests revealed high concentrations of creatinine kinase in serum and elevated renin activities in plasma of these children. The targeted sequencing confirmed that these three patients had an identical heterozygous mutation (p.V876E) in CACNA1S. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the p.V876E mutation in CACNA1S contributes to the early onset of neuromuscular symptoms and unusual clinical phenotypes of HypoPP.
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