IODP Site U1437 is located in the Izu rear-arc region, approximately 330 km west of the Izu-Bonin trench axis. The oldest four units (Units IV through Unit VII) include volcaniclastic sediment and in situ hyaloclastites. They have ages of about 6–15 Ma, shortly after cessation of Shikoku backarc basin opening. Three magma types are identified by their distinct geochemistry; they are similar types to those found in the modern Izu arc (Rear Arc Seamount Chain [RASC]-type, Rift-type, and volcanic front [VF]-type). RASC-type has the most enriched Nd and Hf isotope and fluid-immobile trace element ratios and dominates from 9 to 6 Ma. Rift-type, dominant from 15 to 9 Ma, is similar to VF-type in Nd-Hf isotopes but has the least radiogenic Sr and Pb, and intermediate La/Yb and Nb/Yb, indicating a more fertile mantle source and less hydrous slab component than VF-type. Less common and randomly distributed VF-type sediments have the most radiogenic Sr and Pb, and the highest Ba/(Th, LREE [light rare earth element]) ratios, and are interpreted to be distally derived. The genesis of mafic Unit VII samples (~15 Ma) was modeled using the Arc Basalt Simulator. Results are most similar to those for basalts in the modern rift environment indicating the addition of ~1% of a melt-rich slab component generated at ~125 km, to a Philippine Sea Plate ambient mantle that was more depleted than DMM (depleted MORB mantle). The initial post-Shikoku basin magmatism in the Izu rear-arc generated Rift-type magmas for about 6 million years before the distinctive RASC-type magmatism began, which then became increasingly enriched.
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