The infiltration of leukocytes into inflammation sites such as observed in human periapical granulomas is considered to be mediated by chemotactic factors. In this study, we examined the presence of chemokine- and chemokine receptor-positive cells in samples obtained from human subjects by means of immunohistochemical methods. Macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β and IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)-producing cells were present in periapical granulomas. In addition, chemokine receptor CCR3-, CCR5-, and CXCR3-positive cells were also present. In contrast, no factor expression was observed in clinically healthy periodontal ligament, serving as a negative control. Our findings suggest that these chemokines are responsible for modulating the process of disease, such as human apical periodontitis.
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