This paper discusses the characteristics of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) and how its microdata can be used. The RLMS is a unique nationally representative survey. It has the characteristics of the Family Budget Survey (FBS) and the Labor Force Survey (LFS) conducted by Rosstat. Additionally, the microdata of the RLMS is available; however, none is available for FBS and LFS. Moreover, the RLMS is designed to use its panel data. The points made above permit a microeconometric approach to the study of poverty in transitional Russia along with an analysis of the poverty dynamics of the country.