Objective: To establish 3-dimensional measurement norms for the lips of young Japanese adults. Patients and Methods: Landmarks of the lip and face of 80 volunteers were measured on facial plaster models using a contact-type high accuracy 3-dimensional digitiser. The lip morphology was analysed by measuring 3 dimensional distances, 3-dimensional angles, and some additional morphological parameters. Several measurement items were compared with Caucasian Americans using Farkas' data. Results: The mean linear distances between the landmarks in men were longer than those in women, except for the upper and lower vermilion height. The upper vermilion was thinner than the lower vermilion in the frontal view, but they were almost the same thickness in linear distance. There were some correlations between the size of the lips and that of the middle and lower face. When compared with Caucasian American standards, the vermilion height and the width of the philtrum were greater, but the cutaneous lip height was shorter in Japanese. The length of the labial fissure was similar in both races. Conclusion: It may be useful for surgery of the maxillofacial region to consider racial differences in normal measurements.
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