Electrochemical CO2 conversion offers a promising route for value-added products such as formate, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. As a result of the highly required overpotential for CO2 reduction, researchers have extensively studied the development of catalyst materials in a typical H-type cell, utilizing a dissolved CO2 reactant in the liquid phase. However, the low CO2 solubility in an aqueous solution has critically limited productivity, thereby hindering its practical application. In efforts to realize commercially available CO2 conversion, gas-phase reactor systems have recently attracted considerable attention. Although the achieved performance to date reflects a high feasibility, further development is still required in order for a well-established technology. Accordingly, this review aims to promote the further study of gas-phase systems for CO2 reduction, by generally examining some previous approaches from liquid-phase to gas-phase systems. Finally, we outline major challenges, with significant lessons for practical CO2 conversion systems.
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