A yellow sand transport episode from the Asian continent to Japan and North America which occurred in April 1998 is simulated. A new on-line dust tracer model coupled with a regional-scale meteorological model is developed and applied to this dust storm episode. The results for two large dust events that started during April 14-15 and 19-20, 1998, have been analyzed and discussed. The first dust storm was trapped in a cutoff vortex developed over the China plain. A modeled 3-D structure of dust associated with this cutoff vortex agreed with an observed time-height cross section of dust concentration. Results show that the strong subsidence at the backside of the vortex restricted the dust layer below 3 km level. Model analysis revealed that the second dust event that started during April 19-20 over inland China was the origin of a dust episode reported over North America. The trans-Pacific dust transport simulation successfully showed the dust onset near the West Coast of North America. Elevation of the dust layer during the long-range transport was below 3 km. The model is extended to include the transport of an Asian origin anthropogenic tracer over the North Pacific Rim. Both the natural-origin mineral dust and the Asian-origin anthropogenic tracer are simultaneously transported even if their emission regions are different.
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