Sustained elevation in the intracellular Ca concentration via Ca influx, which is activated by a variety of mechanisms, plays a central regulatory role for cardiovascular functions. Recent molecular biological research has disclosed an unexpectedly diverse array of Ca-entry channel molecules involved in this Ca influx. These include more than ten transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily members such as TRPC1, TRPC3-6, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM4, TRPM7, and polycystin (TRPP2). Most of them appear to be multimodally activated or modulated and show relevant features to both acute hemodynamic control and long-term remodeling of the cardiovascular system, and many of them have been found to respond not only to receptor stimulation but also to various forms of stimuli. There is good evidence to implicate TRPC1 in neointimal hyperplasia after vascular injury via store-depletion-operated Ca entry. TRPC6 likely contributes to receptor-operated and mechanosensitive Ca mobilizations, being involved in vasoconstrictor and myogenic responses and pulmonary arterial proliferation and its associated disease (idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension). Considerable evidence has also been accumulated for unique involvement of TRPV1 in blood flow/pressure regulation via sensory vasoactive neuropeptide release. New lines of evidence suggest that TRPV2 may act as a Ca-overloading pathway associated with dystrophic cardiomyopathy, TRPV4 as a mediator of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, TRPM7 as a proproliferative vascular Mg entry channel, and TRPP2 as a Ca-entry channel requisite for vascular integrity. This review attempts to provide an overview of the current knowledge on TRP proteins and discuss their possible roles in cardiovascular functions and diseases.
|出版ステータス||出版済み - 7 1 2006|
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