Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a relatively rare, aggressive neoplasm associated with asbestos exposure. Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is often performed for resectable MPM as part of a multidisciplinary treatment; however, available data on treatments for recurrence after EPP are limited. Methods: The clinical records of consecutive MPM patients who underwent EPP at our institution from 2001 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 10 patients who underwent EPP with or without perioperative chemotherapy; of these, recurrence was observed in eight patients. Results: The overall median survival time and time to recurrence were 49.6 months and 15.4 months, respectively, after EPP. The first recurrence occurred within the ipsilateral thorax in four patients. These patients all underwent local treatments for their recurrence, including surgery or radiotherapy and with or without systemic chemotherapy. Other first recurrences were seen in the peritoneal space of two patients and in the contralateral lung of two patients. These patients received platinum-based systemic chemotherapy for their recurrence. The median survival time after the first recurrence was 17.8 months, and the 2-year survival rate was 23.4%. Conclusions: Most patients who underwent EPP developed tumor recurrences. Direct tumor extension may be a major mechanism of recurrence. Aggressive treatment for recurrent MPM after EPP, including locoregional control and/or systemic chemotherapy, was important for achieving long-term survival.
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