Objectives: To clarify treatment patterns and outcomes for patients with unresectable or metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the molecular target therapy era in Japan. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective medical chart review study was carried out. Patients diagnosed with unresectable or metastatic renal cell carcinoma between January 2012 and August 2015 were enrolled. Data extracted from medical records included treatment duration, grade ≥3 adverse events, reason for discontinuation for each targeted therapy and survival data until August 2016. Results: Of 277 eligible patients, 266, 170 and 77 received first-, second- and third-line systemic treatment, respectively. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors were the most common first-line therapy (72.2%), followed by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (14.3%) and cytokines (13.5%). Among 170 patients who received second-line treatment, tyrosine kinase inhibitor–tyrosine kinase inhibitor was the most common sequence (58.8%), followed by tyrosine kinase inhibitor–mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (14.1%) and cytokine–tyrosine kinase inhibitor (14.1%). With a median follow-up period of 19.8 months, median overall survival was not reached at 48 months. Patients who discontinued first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors in <6 months showed poorer overall survival compared with patients who received first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors for ≥6 months. Conclusions: The present analysis illustrates the contemporary treatment patterns and prognosis for patients with unresectable or metastatic renal cancer in a real-world setting in Japan. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor–tyrosine kinase inhibitor represents the most commonly used sequence. Shorter treatment duration of first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors is associated with poorer prognosis, suggesting the need for better treatment options.
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