It has been established that estrogen can alter circadian rhythms in behavior and endocrine physiology in rodents. The uterus is a reproductive organ that is critical dependent on regulation by ovarian steroids. Here, we examined the expression of Per1 in diffierent comnpartments of the uterus, and explored whether the ovarian steroids could regulate Per1 expression employing ovariectomized rat uterus. RT-PCR analysis showed that Per1 was cyclically expressed in the uterus. As revealed by in situ hybridization, the staining intensity of Per1 mRNA was stronger at ZT 8 than at ZT 0 in the uterine luminal epithelium (LE), stroma (S), and myometrium (M) compartments, but was not changed in the glandular epithelium (GE). Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that estradiol (E2) administration induced high expression of Per1 in the LE, GE, and M, and less expression in the S compartment. Progesterone (P4) treatment resulted in an obvious enhancement of Per1 expression in the LE, GE, and S, but unchanged in the M compartment. Furthermore, the E2- and P4-activated Per1 expression was significantly repressed by their respective antagonists, ICI182 780 and RU486. These findings were further supported by RT-PCR analysis of Per1 expression in cultured uterine stromal cells. Collectively, the present data indicate that E2 and P4 might be involved in modification of circadian rhythm via direct regulation of the expression of clock genes.
!!!All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes