Ureterocele is classified into two types including orthotopic (simple) and ectopic (Acta Chir Scand. 1954;197(Suppl.):1). Orthotopic type's ureter forming the ureterocele ends in a normal or next to the normal site in the bladder. Ectopic type's ureterocele extends and opens into the bladder neck or posterior urethra. Urinary tract infection or urethral obstruction often occurs in some cases. Some cases of orthotopic type are asymptomatic. The location and the size of ureterocele, existence of VUR, and existence of duplex-system are evaluated by VCUG and IVP. In addition, renal function or associated anomalies should be evaluated by 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, CT, and MRI. Orthotopic-type ureterocele with no symptom can be observed without treatment. However, the cases with UTI or the urinary tract obstruction should be treated by surgical intervention including endoscopic treatment and open surgery. In this chapter, endoscopic treatment and open method for the cases of duplex-system ureterocele are described.
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