The hemodynamics and outcomes in patients with a small aortic annulus (SAA) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with a second-generation transcatheter heart valve remain unclear. We investigated whether TAVR with a Sapien XT (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) influences postprocedural valve hemodynamics and long-term outcome in high-risk SAA patients compared with surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). We retrospectively identified 94 SAA patients who underwent aortic valve replacement (TAVR = 35 and SAVR = 59). SAA was defined as an aortic annulus diameter ≤20 mm, measured by preprocedural transesophageal echocardiography. The mean age was 80.2 years. The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Predicted Risk of Mortality was 6.8%. The post-procedural peak transvalvular velocity and mean pressure gradient were significantly lower in the TAVR cohort than in the SAVR cohort, whereas the postprocedural aortic valve area was significantly higher in the TAVR cohort. Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) occurred less frequently after TAVR than SAVR (TAVR 2.9% versus SAVR 22.0%, P = 0.01). The two-year mortality in SAA patients was similar between the two groups. TAVR with a Sapien XT in SAA patients improved the valve hemodynamics and reduced the incidence of PPM compared with SAVR. TAVR patients had a similar 2-year mortality despite higher risk baseline characteristics. To avoid PPM and the consequent poor outcomes, TAVR can be considered an alternative option to SAVR in high surgical risk patients with SAA.
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