Nature-inspired artificial anti-fouling systems, including a superhydrophobic surface, a liquid-infused omniphobic slippery surface, and an underwater oleophobic surface, were previously proposed and are reviewed herein. An alumina gel film was applied as a platform for a superhydrophobic and an omniphobic slippery surfaces to insure the mechanical durability of the surface geometry and easy processing. The superhydrophobicity of the alumina gel film with hierarchically micro/nano-structure was demonstrated. Infusion of fluorinated non-volatile fluid into the nano-structured alumina gel film gave omniphobic slippery surfaces for both polar and non-polar liquids. A substrate-independent underwater oleophobic surface processing was accomplished with a primer coating of mussel mimetic versatile adhesive copolymer containing catechol groups and subsequent LbL deposition of polyelectrolytes.
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