The monomer, dimer, and trimer of 5,15-diphenyl-10,20-di(pyridin-4-yl)porphyrin are used to investigate the multianchoring effect on TiO2 for visible light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen production in a water medium. Further, the porphyrin trimer is prepared and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical voltammetry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) computation. The results of this study indicate that the peak intensities of the absorption spectra increase as the number of porphyrin units increases, while changes could be barely observed in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps. The porphyrin dimer in a 1 wt % Pt-loaded TiO2 powder photocatalyst system exhibited optimal hydrogen production performance in a stable state over a period of 80 h and at a superior rate of 1023 μmol·g-1·h-1. Further, the stability of the photocatalytic system was systematically investigated using films containing dyes on 1 wt % Pt-loaded TiO2/FTO. For a film containing the dimer, almost no change was observed in the hydrogen-bond coordination mode of the dimer and the photocurrent during the photocatalytic reaction. However, the photocurrents of the monomer and trimer were altered during visible light irradiation without altering the coordination mode, indicating that the arrangements and orientations of the porphyrins on TiO2 surfaces were altered. These results indicate that the presence of multiple anchoring groups enhance the stability of the photocatalytic system and the rate of hydrogen production.
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